Part 1: Hotel Tech Stack: Understanding the Basics

Introduction to technology in hospitality and the concept of a tech stack in 2024

Introduction to technology in hospitality and the concept of a tech stack in 2024
Article by
Bram Haenraets
Article update
January 1, 2024
Table of Contents

Disclaimer: The insights and discussions presented in this blog series are intended to provide a broad overview of modern hotel technology stacks. The content is designed for informational purposes and may not reflect the most recent market developments. Every hotel's needs and circumstances are unique; thus, the technology solutions and strategies discussed should be tailored to meet specific operational requirements. Readers are advised to conduct further research or consult with industry experts before making any significant technological investments or strategic decisions.

More in the Hotel Tech Stack series:


In the dynamic sphere of the hospitality industry, technology has become the bedrock upon which the modern hotel operates. As we navigate a world where efficiency, guest personalization, and seamless service are not just valued but expected, the technology stack a hotel chooses to implement can be the difference between an establishment that thrives and one that merely survives.

But what exactly is a 'tech stack', and why is it so pivotal in today's hotel operations? Simply put, a hotel tech stack is the collection of software applications and tools used to manage and facilitate all aspects of hotel operations—from managing reservations and guest services to ensuring that the housekeeping and maintenance teams are well-coordinated. Yet, it's not just about having the right tools; it's about how these tools integrate and communicate, forming a cohesive system that can grow and adapt with the needs of the business.

Our discussion will begin with an exploration of the tech stack's anatomy, leveraging a comprehensive schema to illuminate the interconnected systems at play. As we delve into the core components such as Property Management Systems (PMS), Central Reservation Systems (CRS), and Customer Relationship Management (CRM), we'll see how they form the lifeblood of hotel operations.

Scalability and flexibility emerge as non-negotiables in this tech ecosystem, as highlighted by industry leaders in recent discussions and articles. We'll uncover why adopting an agnostic approach to system selection—favoring tools that play well with others—is not just smart but necessary for future-proofing your business.

Furthermore, we’ll address the digital challenges that hoteliers face, guided by the wisdom distilled from the trenches of technology deployment in hospitality. As buzzwords like 'integration' and 'APIs' become the heralds of innovation, understanding them moves from being a bonus to a requirement.

By the end of this exploration, you'll not only understand the foundations of a modern hotel tech stack but also appreciate the subtleties of its architecture. And this is just the beginning. In subsequent parts of this series, we'll dive deeper into each component, examining their roles, benefits, and the latest advancements shaping the hospitality industry.

See here our top 10 PMS for luxury hotels in Europe

The Anatomy of a Hotel Tech Stack

A hotel tech stack is the collective suite of software solutions and digital platforms that together enable efficient hotel management and an exceptional guest experience. Its significance lies in its ability to streamline operations, reduce costs, and enhance guest satisfaction.

Defining a Tech Stack

At its core, a tech stack is akin to the central nervous system of hotel operations. It's composed of integrated technological solutions that manage everything from reservations and room assignments to guest services and post-stay feedback. The selection of these systems is strategic; they must be robust, user-friendly, and versatile enough to adapt to changing guest needs and market conditions.

Overview of Key Components

The schema you provided offers a visual representation of how these components interplay:

  • Distribution: It includes systems like the Central Reservation System (CRS), which links to various booking channels including Online Travel Agencies (OTAs) and Global Distribution Systems (GDS).
  • Operations: This is the realm of the Property Management System (PMS), the heart of daily operations, which integrates with point-of-sale (POS) systems, housekeeping schedules, and staff management tools.
  • Marketing/Sales: Here, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems work in tandem with the PMS and other tools to tailor marketing efforts, manage loyalty programs, and track sales performance.
  • Revenue Optimization: Rate management tools and Revenue Management Systems (RMS) analyze booking patterns and market data to help set competitive pricing.
  • Guest Services: This includes check-in/out systems, in-room technology, voice assistants like your Voice Concierge, and guest feedback mechanisms.

Each of these components doesn't just function in isolation; they are interwoven, with data flowing seamlessly from one to the other, ensuring that the entire operation runs like a well-oiled machine. This connectivity not only boosts efficiency but also provides a treasure trove of data that can be used to enhance the guest experience and drive business decisions.

In the following sections of the blog, we'll explore each component in greater detail, understanding their individual and collective contributions to the hotel's success.

Explore the hotel tech stack, featuring the integration of PMS, CRS, RMS, and CRM with A.I., chatbots, and voice assistants, enhancing hotel management and guest experience
The Interconnected Ecosystem of a Modern Hotel's Technology Stack

Core Components and Their Interconnections

Property Management Systems (PMS)

The PMS is the operational hub of a hotel, handling everything from guest check-ins and room availability to billing and maintenance schedules. It’s the primary system used by front desk staff, but it also provides valuable data to other departments, ensuring that every guest's needs are met efficiently.

Central Reservation Systems (CRS)

The CRS is where all booking channels converge. It ensures that rates and availability are consistent across all platforms, whether guests book directly through the hotel’s website, through an OTA, or via a GDS. The CRS feeds into the PMS to update room inventory in real-time, which is critical for avoiding overbookings and ensuring a smooth guest experience.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

CRMs track guest interactions, preferences, and behaviors, enabling personalized marketing and guest services. The CRM system integrates with both the PMS and CRS to provide a 360-degree view of the guest, from initial booking to post-stay feedback. This integration is vital for tailoring guest experiences, loyalty programs, and targeted marketing campaigns.

The Interplay

  • Operations & Distribution: The PMS and CRS must work in sync to reflect real-time availability and rates. When a room is booked via any channel, the PMS is updated instantly to avoid double bookings and optimize occupancy rates.
  • Marketing/Sales & Operations: The CRM system uses data from the PMS to segment guests and tailor marketing efforts. Sales teams use this data to identify potential leads for group bookings and events.
  • Revenue Optimization: Revenue management tools analyze data from the PMS and CRS to forecast demand and suggest optimal pricing strategies. These tools are becoming increasingly sophisticated, using artificial intelligence to maximize revenue per available room (RevPAR).
  • Guest Services: Technologies such as mobile apps, in-room tablets, and voice assistants provide guests with control over their stay and offer a direct line to hotel services. These systems rely on integration with the PMS for real-time updates on service requests and room status.

Each of these core components doesn't function in isolation. Their interconnectivity is what forms the backbone of the hotel tech stack, allowing data to flow where it's needed, when it's needed, ensuring that each part of the hotel's operation is informed by up-to-date, accurate information. This interconnectivity is essential for providing a seamless and personalized guest experience that meets the high standards of modern hospitality.

Scalability and Flexibility in Tech Stacks

In an industry characterized by rapid evolution and shifting guest expectations, the ability of a hotel’s tech stack to adapt and grow is not just beneficial, but a necessity for long-term success and competitiveness.

System Agnosticism: The Key to Versatility

  • Interoperability Across Platforms: System agnosticism refers to the capability of different software components to function effectively across various platforms and environments. This versatility is crucial for ensuring that as hotels expand or their needs change, their technology stack can integrate new technologies or scale existing systems without being restricted to a single vendor or platform.
  • Future-Proofing Technology Investments: By adopting system agnostic solutions, hotels can protect their technology investments against rapid obsolescence. This approach allows for the integration of cutting-edge solutions as they become available, keeping the hotel at the forefront of technological advancements.

Customization and Adaptability

  • Tailoring Tech Stacks to Unique Needs: Flexibility in system selection means that hotels can customize their technology stack to align with their specific operational requirements and unique guest service strategies.
  • Responding to Market Trends: A flexible tech stack allows hotels to pivot more readily in response to changing industry trends, guest preferences, and market conditions. This adaptability is essential in maintaining relevance and competitiveness.

Scalability for Growth and Efficiency

  • Growing with the Hotel: A scalable tech stack can expand in capacity and functionality as the hotel grows. This scalability prevents the need for costly and disruptive system overhauls and enables the hotel to enhance its capabilities incrementally.
  • Improving Operational Efficiency and Revenue: Incremental enhancements brought about by a scalable tech stack can lead to significant improvements in operational efficiency, guest satisfaction, and revenue generation. This gradual evolution ensures that the hotel remains up-to-date without overwhelming staff and operations with sudden, large-scale changes.

Strategic Technology Partnership Selection

  • Choosing Adaptable Solutions: When selecting technology partners and systems, hoteliers should prioritize solutions known for their adaptability and ease of integration. This includes evaluating how well these systems can interact with both current and future technologies.
  • Long-Term Strategic Investment: Choosing scalable and flexible technology solutions is a strategic investment in the hotel's future. It ensures that the hotel can adapt to evolving technological landscapes and guest demands, securing its long-term success and relevance in the hospitality industry.

The scalability and flexibility of a hotel’s tech stack are fundamental in today’s fast-paced hospitality environment. Hotels need to embrace system agnosticism and select technology partners that offer adaptable and scalable solutions. This forward-thinking approach not only equips hotels to efficiently manage current operations but also positions them to capitalize on future technological innovations and market opportunities. As we progress in our series, we will continue to explore how each component of the hotel tech stack plays a crucial role in achieving this adaptability and scalability, contributing to the overall success and resilience of the hotel.

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Challenges and Priorities in Digital Hospitality

The hospitality industry's digital transformation is not without challenges. As the Hotel Online article points out, today's hotel technology landscape is marked by a digital way of life where the customer journey has become complex and multifaceted. This has led to an essential overhaul of technology stacks in order to engage, acquire, service, and retain digitally-savvy consumers across multiple digital touchpoints and devices​1.

  • Guest-Facing Technology: The article identifies two categories of guest-facing digital technology: those aimed at guest engagement, acquisition, and retention, and those providing on-property guest services. It notes a trend among hoteliers focusing more on guest services technology while underinvesting in technology for guest engagement, acquisition, and retention​. ​This under investment, contrasted with the OTA's (Online Travel Agencies) exclusive focus on guest engagement technology, has seen OTAs increase their market share significantly at the expense of direct hotel bookings​.
  • Adoption Hurdles: Hotels face several hurdles in adopting digital technology, including the overwhelming number of technology and data silos and the need to work with multiple vendors. The lack of integration and communication between different technology vendors and internal teams is a significant impediment​. ​There's also a reluctance to invest in new technologies, often due to antiquated accounting practices and a lack of understanding of the technology's potential impact on guest experiences and operational efficiency​.
  • Next-Generation Technologies: Looking ahead, hoteliers must familiarize themselves with next-generation technologies like AI, IoT, voice assistants, chatbots, robotics, and blockchain. These technologies hold the promise of revolutionizing guest services, personalization, and operational efficiency​. ​However, the industry must also be wary of buzzwords and gadgets that do not fundamentally address the core needs of the hotel's tech stack​.
  • Synthesizing the Insights: Incorporating these insights into the blog would involve discussing the critical need for a tech stack that not only addresses the immediate operational needs but also positions a hotel to capitalize on future technological advancements. The blog would highlight the importance of investing in technologies that enhance guest engagement and retention, the need for seamless integration between different systems, and the prioritization of technologies that guests now expect as standard, informed by their digital-first lifestyle.

Integration: The Backbone of Modern Tech Stacks

Integration, primarily facilitated by Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), is what binds the various components of a hotel's tech stack, ensuring seamless operation and data harmony.

Essential Role of APIs in Integration

  • APIs as Connectors: Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are the linchpins of tech stack integration. They allow disparate software systems to communicate and share data with each other, regardless of their underlying technology.
  • Enabling Data Flow: APIs enable the flow of data between different components of the tech stack, such as Property Management Systems (PMS), Central Reservation Systems (CRS), and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) platforms. This flow is essential for maintaining data consistency and accuracy across all systems.

Benefits of Seamless Integration

  • Real-Time Data Sharing: Integrated systems share data in real time, ensuring that all parts of the hotel's operations have up-to-date information. For example, when a guest books a room, the information is instantly updated across the PMS, CRS, and other connected systems.
  • Reducing Manual Data Entry and Errors: By automating data sharing, integration reduces the need for manual data entry, thereby significantly lowering the chances of errors that can lead to operational inefficiencies and guest dissatisfaction.
  • Operational Efficiency: Seamless integration enhances overall operational efficiency. For instance, when a room's status is updated in the PMS, housekeeping and front desk staff are immediately notified, streamlining room readiness and guest check-in processes.

Improving the Guest Experience

  • Accuracy in Guest Services: Integrated systems ensure that the information provided to guests is current and accurate, improving trust and satisfaction. Whether it's room availability, billing, or personalized guest services, integration ensures that guests receive the most relevant and correct information.
  • Efficient Guest Interaction: From check-in to check-out, integrated systems facilitate a smoother and more efficient guest experience. For example, integration between the PMS and mobile guest applications can enable expedited check-ins and access to hotel services.

Considerations for Effective Integration

  • Choosing the Right API Solutions: Selecting API solutions that are robust, secure, and compatible with existing systems is crucial. The right API solutions should not only facilitate current integrations but also be adaptable to future technology additions.
  • Continuous Monitoring and Maintenance: Integration is not a one-time setup but requires continuous monitoring and maintenance to ensure ongoing efficiency and to adapt to any updates in the integrated systems.

Integration stands as the backbone of modern hotel technology stacks, with APIs playing a crucial role in this ecosystem. Effective integration leads to operational excellence, error reduction, and enhanced guest experiences. As hoteliers continue to navigate the complexities of digital transformation, the focus on integrating various technology components cohesively will remain a cornerstone of success. In our next chapters, we will explore how individual systems like PMS, CRS, and CRM can be optimized within this integrated framework, further enhancing the efficiency and guest service capabilities of modern hotels.

Data-Driven Decision Making

The continuous and dynamic flow of data through various tech stack components such as Property Management Systems (PMS), Central Reservation Systems (CRS), and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems provides a goldmine of information that is critical for informed management and operational strategies.

Harnessing Data from Various Systems

  • Rich Data Sources: Systems like PMS, CRS, and CRM gather a wide array of data, ranging from guest preferences and booking patterns to operational efficiencies and financial performance metrics.
  • Comprehensive Guest Insights: This data offers comprehensive insights into guest behavior, preferences, and needs, enabling hoteliers to tailor their services and offerings more effectively.

Role of Analytics in Strategic Management

  • Identifying Trends and Patterns: Advanced analytics tools play a crucial role in deciphering the vast amounts of data collected. They help identify trends and patterns that are critical for strategic planning.
  • Informed Decision Making: With analytics, hoteliers can make data-driven decisions about key aspects such as pricing strategies, marketing campaigns, and operational improvements. For instance, Revenue Management Systems (RMS) can provide data to inform dynamic pricing decisions, optimizing revenue based on demand.

Transforming Data into Actionable Insights

  • Operational Optimization: Data-driven insights can lead to significant operational improvements, such as better resource allocation, improved staff efficiency, and enhanced guest services.
  • Personalized Marketing and Guest Experience: CRM data can be used to create personalized marketing efforts, directly impacting guest engagement and satisfaction. Personalization can range from tailored email marketing campaigns to customized in-stay experiences.
  • Enhancing Revenue Management: By analyzing booking patterns and market trends, hoteliers can adjust their pricing strategies in real-time, maximizing occupancy and revenue.

Competitive Advantage in a Digital Landscape

  • Navigating Industry Complexities: In the complex and competitive field of hospitality, a data-driven approach is essential for staying ahead. It allows hoteliers to quickly adapt to market changes and guest expectations.
  • Staying Ahead of Trends: The ability to rapidly process and act on data insights ensures that hotels can anticipate and lead market trends, rather than merely reacting to them.

Data-driven decision-making is a cornerstone of modern hotel management, crucial for navigating the intricacies of the hospitality industry. The integration of various systems in a hotel tech stack to collect and analyze data ensures that hoteliers can make informed decisions that optimize operations, enhance guest experiences, and increase revenue. In the upcoming chapters, we will explore how each component of the tech stack contributes to this data-driven ecosystem, further empowering hotels to thrive in today’s digital and competitive landscape.

Looking Ahead: Future-Proofing Your Tech Stack

Future-proofing the tech stack is critical for maintaining a competitive edge in the hospitality industry.

Selecting Adaptable and Scalable Platforms

  • Focus on Scalability: Choose technology platforms that are scalable and can grow with your hotel. This scalability ensures that as the hotel expands or diversifies its services, the tech stack can accommodate these changes without the need for complete overhauls.
  • Integration Capabilities: Opt for systems with strong integration capabilities, allowing for seamless communication with both existing technologies and potential future additions. This flexibility is essential for incorporating new functionalities as they emerge.

Regular Updates and Adaptation to Industry Trends

  • Staying Current: Ensure that the technology providers regularly update their systems to keep up with industry advancements. Regular updates mean that the tech stack will continue to meet the evolving needs of the hotel and its guests.
  • Responsive to Market Developments: The chosen technology should be agile enough to adapt to new market developments, such as changes in guest booking behaviors or emerging hospitality trends.

Anticipating and Meeting Evolving Guest Needs

  • Mobile Services and Personalization: As guest behavior shifts towards a preference for mobile services and personalized experiences, the tech stack should support these demands. This could include mobile check-in/out capabilities, personalized room settings, and tailored guest communication.
  • Guest-Centric Technologies: Implementing guest-centric technologies like mobile apps, chatbots, and personalized recommendation engines can significantly enhance the guest experience.

Embracing Emerging Technologies

  • Cloud-Based Solutions: Cloud-based platforms offer several advantages, including enhanced security, scalability, and remote accessibility. They are especially valuable in adapting to fluctuating demands and enabling remote management capabilities.
  • Artificial Intelligence and IoT: Invest in emerging technologies like AI and the Internet of Things (IoT). AI can drive personalized guest experiences and operational efficiency, while IoT can be used to create a more connected and responsive in-room environment.
  • Preparing for Future Innovations: Stay informed about advancements in technology, such as blockchain, virtual reality, or advanced analytics, and assess how they could be integrated into your hotel’s operations in the future.

Future-proofing your hotel tech stack is about more than just keeping up with the latest technologies; it's about selecting and investing in systems that will adapt and grow with your hotel and the evolving needs of your guests. By focusing on scalability, integration capabilities, regular updates, and embracing emerging technologies, hotels can ensure that their tech stack not only meets current demands but is also prepared for future challenges and opportunities. As the hotel industry continues to evolve in the digital age, this forward-thinking approach will be key to ensuring operational excellence and an unmatched guest experience.


As we conclude this exploration into the foundations of a modern hotel tech stack, it's clear that the right blend of technology is critical for the success and longevity of a hotel in the digital era. From understanding the intricate anatomy of a tech stack to acknowledging the challenges and opportunities presented by digital advancements, we have laid the groundwork for a comprehensive understanding of hotel technology. Moving forward, hoteliers must remain agile, embracing scalable, flexible systems that adapt to evolving trends and guest expectations. By focusing on seamless integration, data-driven decision making, and future-proof technologies, hotels can not only enhance their operational efficiency and guest satisfaction but also secure a competitive edge in an ever-evolving industry.

Stay with us as our series unfolds with Part 2: "Property Management Systems (PMS)," where we explore the operational nerve center of modern hotels. Discover how a robust PMS can streamline your operations and elevate the guest experience.

Frequently Asked Questions


How does the hotel tech stack evolve to meet the changing needs of the industry?

The hotel tech stack constantly evolves to incorporate new technologies and adapt to industry trends. It now includes systems for reservations, property management, guest services, and more. The stack's evolution reflects the industry's shift towards digitization, personalization, and improved guest interactions.


What are some emerging technologies shaping the future of the hotel tech stack?

Emerging technologies like artificial intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), and contactless solutions are driving innovation in the hotel tech stack. AI enhances guest experiences, IoT connects devices for improved automation, and contactless options streamline operations. These technologies are poised to redefine the hotel industry's landscape​​.


What is autonomous guest engagement and what sets Viqal apart?

Viqal stands out with autonomous guest engagement, i.e. fully automating the guest inquiry process, from initiating natural conversations to PMS data entry, all without manual effort from staff. Their deep hotel tech know-how ensures seamless system integration, making guest interactions efficient and staff roles more strategic.